HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE PARTS | Green Mechanic Green Mechanic: HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE PARTS
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HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE PARTS


Parts

  • Hub
  • Rotor 
  • Blades
  • Pitch
  • Shaft 
  • Brake
  • Gear
  • Generator
  • Wind sensor
  • Yaw drive
  • Tower
  • Nacelle
  • Guide wire ( only in vertical axis wind turbine)

Hub

The hub is the centre of the rotor to which the rotor blades are attached. Cast iron or cast steel is most often used. In simple designs, the blades are directly bolted to the hub and hence are stalled. In other more sophisticated designs, they are bolted to the pitch mechanism, which adjusts their angle of attack according to the wind speed to control their rotational speed. The pitch mechanism is itself bolted to the hub. 


Rotor


The rotor is the heart of a wind turbine and consists of multiple rotor blades attached to a hub. It is the turbine component responsible for collecting the energy present in the wind and transforming this energy into mechanical motion. As the overall diameter of the rotor design increases, the amount of energy that the rotor can extract from the wind increases as well. Therefore, turbines are often designed around a certain diameter rotor and the predicted energy that can be drawn from the wind.


Rotor Blades


Rotor blades are a crucial and basic part of a wind turbine.they are mainly made of aluminium, fibber glass or carbon fibber because they provide batter strength to weight ratio. The design of the individual blades also affects the overall design of the rotor. Rotor blades take the energy out of the wind; they “capture” the wind and convert its kinetic energy into the rotation of the hub. The profile is similar to that of air plane wings. Rotor blades utilize the same “lift” principle: below the wing, the stream of air produces overpressure; above the wing, the stream of air produces vacuum. These forces make the rotor rotate. 


Pitch Mechanism


The main pitch mechanism is to change the angle of attack on blades. In large wind turbine enables the rotation of the blades on their longitudinal  axis. It can change the angle of attack of the blade with respect to the wind by which the aerodynamics characteristic of the blade can be adjusted. 

Shaft


The shaft is the part that gets turned by the turbine blades. It in turn is connected to the generator within the main housing.


Electrical Braking


Braking of a small wind turbine can also be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank, converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat. This method is useful if the kinetic load on the generator is suddenly reduced or is too small to keep the turbine speed within its allowed limit.
Cyclically braking causes the blades to slow down, which increases the stalling effect, reducing the efficiency of the blades. This way, the turbine's rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output. This method is usually not applied on large grid-connected wind turbines.


Mechanical Braking


A mechanical brake is normally placed on the high speed shaft between the gearbox and the generator, but there are some turbine in which the brake is mounted on the low speed shaft between the turbine and gear box
A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is use to stop turbine in emergency situation such as extreme gust events or over speed. This brake is also used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance as a secondary mean, primarily mean being the rotor lock system. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed generally 1 or 2 rotor RPM, as the mechanical brakes can create a fire inside the nacelle if used to stop the turbine from full speed. Also the load on turbine increases if brake is applied on rated RPM. These kind of mechanical brake are driven by hydraulic systems and connected to main control box.


Gear Box


The main function of the gear box is to take low rotational speed from shaft and increase it to increase the rotational speed of the generator.Among the types of gear stages are the plantary, helical,oarallel shaft, spure and worm types. Two or more gear types may be combined in multiple stages. they are made up of aluminium alloys, stainless steel and cost iron 

Generator


The conversion of rotational mechanical energy to electrical energy is performed by generator. Different types of generator have been used in wind energy system over the years. For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network - typical rotation speeds for wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750-3600 rpm. Therefore, a gearbox is inserted between the rotor hub and the generator. This also reduces the generator cost and weight


Wind Sensor


The pitch and yaw central system required wind speed and direction measurements respectively. The pitch control needs the wind speed to determine the angle of attack of the blade foe optimal operation



Yaw Drive



The main function of the yaw drive is to maximize the captured wind energy by feeling the turbine facing into the wind. It usually consists of more then one electric motor drive, yaw gear, gear rim and bearing. Modern large wind turbines are typically actively controlled to face the wind direction measured by a wind vane situated on the back of the nacelle. By minimizing the yaw angle (the misalignment between wind and turbine pointing direction), the power output is maximized and non-symmetrical loads minimized. However, since the wind direction varies quickly the turbine will not strictly follow the direction and will have a small yaw angle on average. The power output losses can simply be approximated to fall with (cos(yaw angle))3. Particularly at low-to-medium wind speeds, yawing can make a significant reduction in turbine output, with wind direction variations of ±30° being quite common and long response times of the turbines to changes in wind direction. At high wind speeds, the wind direction is less variable.


Tower and Foundation


The main function of the tower is to support the nacelle and turbine rotor and provide the rotor with the necessary elevation to reach better wind conditions. Most are made of steel



Nacelle

The nacelle houses a generator and gearbox. The spinning blades are attached to the generator through a series of gears. The gears increase the rotational speed of the blades to the generator speed of over 1,500 RPM. As the generator spins, electricity is produced. Generators can be either variable or fixed speed. Variable speed generators produce electricity at a varying frequency, which must be corrected to 60 cycles per second before it is fed onto the grid. Fixed speed generators don't need to be corrected, but aren't as able to take advantage of fluctuations in wind speed


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